De Ronde & Haveman

De Ronde & Haveman

Research and Consultancy Agency for Geobotany and Landscape

Publications on scrubs and brambles

Scrubs and thickets

Scrubs are a vegetation type dominated by multi-stem phanerophytes. You find them in various environments, like open places in woodlands and woodland clearings, in forest edges and on wooded banks, between parcels, in hollow roads and paths and in road verges, and in dune areas where shrubs encroach species rich grasslands. Hedgerows are strongly cultivated/domesticated scrubs, kept in form by annual pruning.


Scrubs are transitional between woodland and open fields (grasslands, agricultural fields and heathlands), both temporal and spatial. Without use or management, low vegetation changes in forest by the encroachment of shrubs and trees, with a scrub as temporal intermediate phase. Scrubs in open places in woodlands, on forest clearings and in the dunes are examples of such intermediate and temporal phases. Narrow scrubs in the edge of forests ('mantles') and hedges are examples of spatial transitions. Unlike temporal scrub phases, such spatial transition scrubs are stable. The species composition of both scrub types is different.


We mainly conducted phytosociological studies on scrubs, but in a few cases our approach was different. 

    • Haveman, R. (accepted). Phytosociological notes on hedges in South Ayrshire, Scotland. – Forum Geobotanicum
    • Haveman, R., I. de Ronde, M. Filius & T. van Heusden (2023). Van mythes, mantels en plantensociologisch realisme. – Stratiotes 59: 18-36. pdf
    • Loidi, J., J.A. Campos, R. Haveman & J. Janssen (2019). Shrublands of Temperate Europe. In J. Dengler, Encyclopedia of World's Biomes - Grasslands. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
    • Haveman, R. & I. de Ronde (2019). Vegetation classification as a mirror of evolution? Thoughts on the syntaxonomy and management of bramble scrubs of the Prunetalia (Rhamno-Prunetea). – Biologia 74: 395-404. pdf
    • De Ronde, I. & R. Haveman (2017). Lonicero-Rubetea. – Stratiotes 50/51: 98-107.
    • Haveman, R., I. de Ronde & J.H.J. Schaminée (2017). Cytisetea scopario-striati. – Stratiotes 50/51: 108-118.
    • Haveman, R.,  I. de Ronde, E.J. Weeda & J.H.J. Schaminée (2017). Salicetea arenariae. – Stratiotes 50/51: 119-137.
    • Haveman, R., I. de Ronde & J.H.J. Schaminée (2017). Rhamno-Prunetea. – Stratiotes 50/51: 138-160.
    • Haveman, R., I. de Ronde & J.H.J. Schaminée (2017). Retamoid scrubs of the Cytisetea scopario-striati Rivas-Mart. 1974 in the Netherlands:  a new approach to classify marginal associations. – Tuexenia 37: 143-161. pdf
    • Haveman, R., I. de Ronde, R.J. Bijlsma & J.H.J. Schaminée (2014). Systematic randomised sampling along three landscape transects in the Netherlands reveals the geographically structured variation in Rubus scrubs. – Phytocoenologia 44: 31-44. pdf
    • Haveman, R., I. de Ronde & E.J. Weeda (2014). Ecologie, verspreiding en syntaxonomie van Nederlandse struwelen. II. Bramenrijke kapvlaktes. – Stratiotes 46: 5-40. pdf
    • Haveman, R., E.J. Weeda, A.M.M. Van Haperen & I. de Ronde (2013). Ecologie, verspreiding en syntaxonomie van Nederlandse struwelen. I. Het Salicetum capreae. – Stratiotes 45: 4-29. pdf
    • Haveman, R., I. de Ronde & E.J. Weeda (2012). The Rubetum taxandriae ass. nova (Lonicero-Rubion silvatici, Lonicero-Rubetea plicati), a new bramble association from the Belgian and Dutch Campine. – Tuexenia 32:55-65. pdf
    • Haveman, R. & A. van Haperen (2008). Bramenrijke duinstruwelen. – Stratiotes 36/37: 63-86. pdf
    • Haveman, R., J.H.J. Schaminée & A.H.F. Stortelder (1999). Lonicero-Rubetea plicati. - In A.H.F. Stor­tel­der, J.H.J. Schaminée & E.J. Weeda, De Vegetatie van Nederland 5. Opulus Press, Uppsa­la.
    • Haveman, R., J.H.J. Schaminée & E.J. Weeda (1999). Rhamno-Prunetea. - In A.H.F. Stortelder, J.H.J. Schaminée & E.J. Weeda, De Vegetatie van Nederland 5. Opulus Press, Uppsala.
    • Haveman, R. (1997). Het Rubetum grati (Lonicero-Rubetea plicati  classis nova) in Nederland. - Stratiotes 14: 41-51. pdf


    Like hawkweeds, brambles (Rubus) in Europe consists of a large group of apomics: they propagate asexually through seed. In the Netherlands, about 220 species are known from the sections Rubus and Corylifolii. Below you find most of our publications on brambles; publications on bramble scrubs are already listed above.

    • Bijlsma, R.J., R. Haveman & L. Reutelingsperger (accepted). Bramenland Nederland. Brochure VBNE
    • Van de Beek, A. R. Haveman, R. Berkhout & I. de Ronde (2021). Rubus lianos (Rosaceae) – a new blackberry species from the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium. – Gorteria - Dutch Botanical Archives 43: 89-102. pdf
    • Haveman, R. (2017). Concealed diversity. Taxonomical, phytogeographical and phytosociological notes on brambles (Rubus L. subgen. Rubus) in north-west Europe. – Dissertation Wageningen University, 203 pp. pdf
    • Haveman, R., R.J. Bijlsma, I. de Ronde & J. H.J. Schaminée (2016). Capricious, or tied to history's apron strings? Floristic regions in Northwest-European brambles (Rubus subgen. Rubus, Rosaceae). – Journal of Biogeography 43(7): 1360-1371.
    • Van de Beek, A., R.J. Bijlsma, R. Haveman, K. Meijer, I. de Ronde, A. Troelstra & E.J. Weeda (2014). Naamlijst en verspreidingsgegevens van de Nederlandse bramen (Rubus L.). – Gorteria 36: 108-171. pdf
    • Haveman, R. & I. de Ronde (2014). Bramen houden niet van natte voeten. – In: J.H.J. Schaminée & A.H.N. Stortelder (red.), Venster op Dreischor, Fontaine Uitgevers, Hilversum, pp. 142-145.
    • Haveman, R. (2013). Freakish patterns - species and species concepts in apomicts. – Nordic Journal of Botany 31: 257-269. 
    • Haveman, R. & I. De Ronde (2012). The role of the Weberian Reform in European Rubus research and the taxonomy of locally distributed species – which species should we describe? – Nordic Journal of Botany 31: 145-150.
    • Bijlsma, R.-J. & R. Haveman (2007). Rubus canduliger, a new regional species from the Netherlands, with notes on the range structure and dynamics of brambles (Rubus L., Rosaceae). – Folia Geobotanica. 42: 315-329.
    • Foppen, R., R. Haveman, J. Schaminée & N. Smits (1999). Achter de bramen. Een vegetatiekundige beschrijving van het leefgebied van de hazelmuis Muscardinus avellanarius met aanbevelingen voor het beheer. - IBN-rapport 467, Wageningen, 34 pp. pdf