Scrubs and thickets
Scrubs are a vegetation type dominated by multi-stem phanerophytes. You find them in various environments, like open places in woodlands and woodland clearings, in forest edges and on wooded banks, between parcels, in hollow roads and paths and in road verges, and in dune areas where shrubs encroach species rich grasslands. Hedgerows are strongly cultivated/domesticated scrubs, kept in form by annual pruning.
Scrubs are transitional between woodland and open fields (grasslands, agricultural fields and heathlands), both temporal and spatial. Without use or management, low vegetation changes in forest by the encroachment of shrubs and trees, with a scrub as temporal intermediate phase. Scrubs in open places in woodlands, on forest clearings and in the dunes are examples of such intermediate and temporal phases. Narrow scrubs in the edge of forests ('mantles') and hedges are examples of spatial transitions. Unlike temporal scrub phases, such spatial transition scrubs are stable. The species composition of both scrub types is different.
We mainly conducted phytosociological studies on scrubs, but in a few cases our approach was different.
Like hawkweeds, brambles (Rubus) in Europe consists of a large group of apomics: they propagate asexually through seed. In the Netherlands, about 220 species are known from the sections Rubus and Corylifolii. Below you find most of our publications on brambles; publications on bramble scrubs are already listed above.
Foppen, R., R. Haveman, J. Schaminée & N. Smits (1999). Achter de bramen. Een vegetatiekundige beschrijving van het leefgebied van de hazelmuis Muscardinus avellanarius met aanbevelingen voor het beheer. - IBN-rapport 467, Wageningen, 34 pp. pdf